Condensation Cube, (1963-1965); Plexiglas and water; MACBA Collection. MACBA Foundation

"Condensation Cube (1963-1968) is one of Hans Haacke’s earlier works. While over time the artist developed a critique of art as an institution and system, these early works focus on art in the sense of process and physical system. Interested in biology, ecology and cybernetics, in the mid-sixties Haacke was influenced by the ideas of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, especially those outlined in his General System Theory of 1968. For the Austrian biologist and philosopher, a living organism is an open system that continuously changes depending on its dialogue or interaction with the environment. Haacke’s early works, such as Condensation Cube, transpose this concept to the realm of art." – from MACBA Collection

Kurt Schwitters collages that use chance in composing - specifically Merz 3, 1923 print portfolio is interesting in relation to Photoshop actions. Also the collages are just so beautiful! Have so many blurry pics through glass of these from when I'd see them at MoMA.

Here's the whole portfolio -

Kurt Schwitters, Plate 5 from Merz 3, 1923

Kurt Schwitters, Plate 1 from Merz 3, 1923

From MoMA Website:

According to Schwitters, his collage-based art form called _Merz “_denotes essentially the combination of all conceivable materials for artistic purposes.” Merz fused found materials—from paper scraps to fragments of overheard conversations—into art forms ranging from poetry to assemblage. Between 1923 and 1932, Schwitters sporadically published twenty–two issues of Merz; the third issue comprises a portfolio of six unbound lithographs. The grids of squares and rectangles that appear in various scales, shades, and patterns throughout these prints are layered with colorful fragments from advertisements and children’s books—additions that reflect the fragmented social, political, and economic realities of postwar Germany. The prints are detailed with large capital letters, human and doll–like figures, and a duplicated kitten. This layering of commercial ephemera, hand–drawn imagery, and collage demonstrates how Schwitters applied chance and improvisation to his printmaking process and exposes the additive nature of printmaking.